Artificial Neural Network in Scala - part 2

Alexey Novakov published on

20 min, 3837 words

Categories: scala

In this article we are going to implement ANN from scratch in Scala. It is continuation of the first article, which describes a theory of ANN.

This implementation will consist of:

  1. Mini-library for sub-set of Tensor calculus
  2. Mini-library for data preparation
  3. A DSL for Neural Network creation, including layers
  4. Pluggable weights optimizer
  5. Pluggable implementation of activation and loss functions
  6. Pluggable training metric calculation

Everything will be implemented in pure Scala without using any third-party code. By pluggable I mean extendable, i.e. a user can provide own implementation by implementing Scala trait.

Neural network and data preprocessing APIs are inspired by Keras and scikit-learn libraries.

Tensor Library

Before starting our journey into the world of linear algebra we need good support for Tensor calculus such as multiplication, addition, subtraction, transponding operations. Without these operations, we will clutter the main algorithm so that another person, who will be reading our code, may lost. It is very easy to be blown away by pile of code which is trying to mimic math. Scala is perfect language to implement math expression as it supports custom operands by using symbols as definitions (variables, methods, etc.), i.e. we can implement "*" or any other math operations as part of our custom type Tensor.

Below we define Tensor trait for a generic type T. Later, we will set boundaries for T. It must have given instances of ClassTag and Numeric types for array creation and general numerical computations.

sealed trait Tensor[T]:
  type A
  def data: A
  def length: Int
  def sizes: List[Int]
  def cols: Int
extension [T: ClassTag: Numeric, U: ClassTag](t: Tensor[T])
    // dot product    
    def *(that: Tensor[T]): Tensor[T] = Tensor.mul(t, that)
    def map(f: T => U): Tensor[U] =[T, U](t, f)
    def -(that: T): Tensor[T] = Tensor.subtract(t, Tensor0D(that))
    def -(that: Tensor[T]): Tensor[T] = Tensor.subtract(t, that)
    def +(that: Tensor[T]): Tensor[T] =, that)    
    def sum: T = Tensor.sum(t)        
    def split(fraction: Float): (Tensor[T], Tensor[T]) = 
        Tensor.split(fraction, t)
    // Hadamard product
    def multiply(that: Tensor[T]): Tensor[T] = Tensor.multiply(t, that)
    def batches(
        batchSize: Int
    ): Iterator[Array[Array[T]]] = Tensor.batches(t, batchSize)    

In extension section we add lots of operations that our generic Tensor is going to support. Some of them are symbolic like * and -. Other operations are more traditional methods such as map or sum. Note that * and multiply are two different operations. From math perspective, the first one is a dot product another one is a Hadamard product. Most of the time, we will use "dot product" operation, however in one place Hadamard product is going to be used (back-propagation part).

All extension methods are delegating the operations to plain Scala functions in the Tensor singleton object.

Before checking some of the implementations for Tensor operations, let's look on 3 cases of Tensor itself.

case class Tensor0D[T: ClassTag](data: T) extends Tensor[T]:  

case class Tensor1D[T: ClassTag](data: Array[T]) extends Tensor[T]:

case class Tensor2D[T: ClassTag](data: Array[Array[T]]) extends Tensor[T]:

From math perspective, first instance is a scalar number, second is a vector and third is a matrix. Of course, we could implement tensors in more generic way and invent some N-dimensional array that would support 3, 4 and any number of dimensions, but I think from our personal learning perspective, making more concrete hard-coded classes would be easier to understand the whole ANN implementation.


Let's look only at one important operation from Tensor API which is dot product.

def mul[T: ClassTag: Numeric](a: Tensor[T], b: Tensor[T]): Tensor[T] =
  (a, b) match
    case (Tensor0D(data), t) =>
      scalarMul(t, data)
    case (t, Tensor0D(data)) =>
      scalarMul(t, data)
    case (Tensor1D(data), Tensor2D(data2)) =>
      Tensor2D(matMul(asColumn(data), data2))
    case (Tensor2D(data), Tensor1D(data2)) =>
      Tensor2D(matMul(data, asColumn(data2)))
    case (Tensor1D(data), Tensor1D(data2)) =>
      Tensor1D(matMul(asColumn(data), Array(data2)).head)
    case (Tensor2D(data), Tensor2D(data2)) =>
      Tensor2D(matMul(data, data2))

  private def matMul[T: ClassTag: Numeric](
      a: Array[Array[T]],
      b: Array[Array[T]]
  )(using n: Numeric[T]): Array[Array[T]] =
      a.head.length == b.length,
      "The number of columns in the first matrix should be equal " + 
      s"to the number of rows in the second, ${a.head.length} != ${b.length}"
    val rows = a.length
    val cols = colsCount(b)
    val res = Array.ofDim[T](rows, cols)

    for i <- (0 until rows).indices do
      for j <- (0 until cols).indices do
        var sum =
        for k <- b.indices do
          sum = sum + (a(i)(k) * b(k)(j))
        res(i)(j) = sum
  1. First we select specific type of multiplication based on the tensor dimension.
  2. If tensor is not scalar, then we try to use matrix multiplication. Here, if some of the operands is vector we make that vector as matrix with one column according to math convention.
  3. Later we check operands dimensions, as they must obey rules of matrix multiplication. If rules are not met we throw an error. No Scala Either type or other error modelling is used to not clutter the code. Our goal is to stay as close as possible to math and keep balance between using types and readability.

See source code on GitHub for full implementation of tensor library.

Neural Network DSL

Let's define a trait for abstract model that can learn:

sealed trait Model[T]:
  def train(x: Tensor[T], y: Tensor[T], epochs: Int): Model[T]
  def predict(x: Tensor[T]): Tensor[T]
  def reset(): Model[T]
  def currentWeights: List[Weight[T]]
  def losses: List[T]

The first two methods are the main ones.

  1. We can use train to provide input features as x and target values as y, specify number of training cycles as epochs to learn the right parameters for future predictions.
  2. predict allows us to infer target value by giving only x data
  3. reset cleans model weights, so that it initialises them again upon next training
  4. currentWeights and losses are returning weights and losses of the last training cycle.

Machine learning model is a stateful thing. It keeps list of parameters called weights and biases of type List[Weight[T]]. These parameters are the heart of the model. They are mutating on every training epoch and data batch.

Model initialisation

Before designing neural network training API, let's look at entities we need:

trait ActivationFunc[T]:
  def apply(x: Tensor[T]): Tensor[T]
  def derivative(x: Tensor[T]): Tensor[T]

trait Loss[T]:
  def apply(actual: Tensor[T], predicted: Tensor[T]): T

sealed trait Layer[T]:
  def units: Int
  def f: ActivationFunc[T]

case class Dense[T](f: ActivationFunc[T], units: Int = 1) extends Layer[T]

case class Weight[T](
  w: Tensor[T], b: Tensor[T], 
  f: ActivationFunc[T], units: Int

 * z - before activation = w * x
 * a - activation value
case class Activation[T](x: Tensor[T], z: Tensor[T], a: Tensor[T])

We have modelled network parameters as traits with implementations as case classes. Later we use them to create an instance of the model.

trait RandomGen[T]:
  def gen: T

case class Sequential[T: ClassTag: RandomGen: Numeric, U: Optimizer](
    lossFunc: Loss[T],
    learningRate: T,
    metric: Metric[T],
    batchSize: Int = 16,
    weightStack: Int => List[Weight[T]] = (_: Int) => List.empty[Weight[T]],    
    weights: List[Weight[T]] = Nil,
    losses: List[T] = Nil
) extends Model[T]:

  def add(layer: Layer[T]): Sequential[T, U] =
    copy(weightStack = (inputs) => {
      val currentWeights = weightStack(inputs)
      val prevInput =
      val w = random2D(prevInput, layer.units)
      val b = zeros(layer.units)
      (currentWeights :+ Weight(w, b, layer.f, layer.units))

There are bunch of parameters that we need in simple sequential model with fully connected layers:

  1. Generic type T is numeric type of the data which can be Float, Double, Int, etc. Most of the time you want numbers with floating point in machine learning.
  2. Random generator can be provided as contextual abstraction (given instance). It is used to initialise weights and biases for every layer.
  3. Generic U is a type of optimisation algorithm that we use in back-propagation part of the training cycle. Also given as type class instance.
  4. learningRate and batchSize are hyper-parameters to be tuned externally.
  5. weightStack is a function that construct list of initial layers based on the provided earlier Layer configuration via method add. It is not supposed to be called manually. The weightStack function is called by train method internally to create initial list of weights, if weights are empty. If they are not empty, they are reused.

This is how a user is supposed to use such API:

val accuracy = accuracyMetric[Float]
val ann = Sequential[Float, SimpleGD](
  learningRate = 0.05f,
  metric = accuracy,
  batchSize = 32
  .add(Dense(relu, 6))
  .add(Dense(relu, 6))    

There is a type SimpleGD that picks up a required instance of Optimizer implementation. See details below.

Training loop

train method runs trainEpoch multiple times, which is equal to epochs parameter. Every training epoch returns new weights list, which is used again for the next epoch. This loop may run, for example, 100 times. Also, we collect a list of average loss values and print a user metric value. We have set accuracy metric as per code earlier.

def train(x: Tensor[T], y: Tensor[T], epochs: Int): Model[T] =
  lazy val inputs = x.cols
  lazy val actualBatches = y.batches(batchSize).toArray
  lazy val xBatches = x.batches(batchSize).zip(actualBatches).toArray
  lazy val w = getWeights(inputs)

  val (updatedWeights, epochLosses) =
    (1 to epochs).foldLeft((w, List.empty[T])) {
      case ((weights, losses), epoch) =>
        val (w, avgLoss, metricValue) = trainEpoch(xBatches, weights)
        val metricAvg = metric.average(x.length, metricValue)
          s"epoch: $epoch/$epochs, avg. loss: $avgLoss, 
          ${}: $metricAvg"
        (w, losses :+ avgLoss)
  copy(weights = updatedWeights, losses = epochLosses)

trainEpoch is implementing forward- and back-propagation for every data sample batch:

private def trainEpoch(
    batches: Array[(Array[Array[T]], Array[Array[T]])],
    weights: List[Weight[T]]
) =
  val (w, l, metricValue) =
    batches.foldLeft(weights, List.empty[T], 0) {
      case ((weights, batchLoss, metricAcc), (xBatch, yBatch)) =>
        // forward
        val activations = activate(xBatch.as2D, weights)
        val actual = yBatch.as2D          
        val predicted = activations.last.a          
        val error = predicted - actual          
        val loss = lossFunc(actual, predicted)

        // backward
        val updated = summon[Optimizer[U]].updateWeights(
        val metricValue = metric.calculate(actual, predicted)
        (updated, batchLoss :+ loss, metricAcc + metricValue)
  (w, getAvgLoss(l), metricValue)

Gradient Descent Optimizer

Now let's look at optimizer code. It implements standard gradient descent algorithm:

sealed trait Optimizer[U]:
  def updateWeights[T: Numeric: ClassTag](
    weights: List[Weight[T]],
    activations: List[Activation[T]],
    error: Tensor[T],
    learningRate: T
  ): List[Weight[T]]

type SimpleGD

In order to update weights an optimizer needs:

  1. the list of weights to update
  2. current activations for all layers
  3. calculated error: yHat vs. y
  4. learningRate parameter, which is static for the entire training cycle

SimpleGD type is a token to summon an optimizer instance. In future, we can extend optimizers with other algorithms.

Data batching is happening outside of the optimizer, in the train method. We can select either full batch or mini-batch training by specifying a number of records in the batch. So that is why this optimizer is not specific type of gradient descent (stochastic, mini-batch, batch), but just works with whatever weights are given for updates.

Actual implementation of the gradient descent optimization:

given Optimizer[SimpleGD] with
  override def updateWeights[T: Numeric: ClassTag](
      weights: List[Weight[T]],
      activations: List[Activation[T]],
      error: Tensor[T],
      learningRate: T
  ): List[Weight[T]] =      
        None: Option[Tensor[T]]
      ) {
        case (
              (Weight(w, b, f, u), Activation(x, z, _)),
              (ws, prevDelta, prevWeight)
            ) =>            
          val delta = (prevWeight match {
            case Some(pw) => prevDelta * pw.T
            case None     => prevDelta
          }) multiply f.derivative(z)

          val partialDerivative = x.T * delta
          val newWeight = w - (learningRate * partialDerivative)
          val newBias = b - (learningRate * delta.sum)
          val updated = Weight(newWeight, newBias, f, u) +: ws
          (updated, delta, Some(w))

The weights update starts from tail and moves to the head of the list, i.e. from the last layer to the first hidden layer. weights and activations are equal in length, since the last one is produced via the weight list during the forward-propagation.

The complex part is calculating the delta that we use for partial derivative.

  1. Initial delta is equal to error. Next layer is calculating delta on its own, which is a dot product of previous layer delta and weights.
  2. Last layer does not have previous weights.
  3. Every delta is then multiplied by activation function derivative: f.derivative(z).
  4. The rest part is simpler and more or less linear. We calculate partialDerivative and update layer weights and biases.
  5. We pass current layer weight and delta to the next layer. Usage of foldRight helps us easily to pass these parameters to the next layer.

This folding loop returns updated list of weights, which is, of course, has equal length comapre to the original list.

Data Preparation

Before we start learning, we need to prepare initial data for the training. Unfortunately, data preparation requires us quite a lot of code to write.

def createEncoders[T: Numeric: ClassTag](
    data: Tensor2D[String]
  ): Tensor2D[String] => Tensor2D[T] =
  val encoder = LabelEncoder[String]().fit(data.col(2))
  val hotEncoder = OneHotEncoder[String, T]().fit(data.col(1))
  val label = x => encoder.transform(x, 2)
  val hot = x => hotEncoder.transform(x, 1)
  val typeTransform = (x: Tensor2D[String]) => transform[T](
  label andThen hot andThen typeTransform

val dataLoader = TextLoader(Path.of("data", "Churn_Modelling.csv")).load()
val data = dataLoader.cols[String](3, -1)

val encoders = createEncoders[Float](data)
val numericData = encoders(data)
val scaler = StandardScaler[Float]().fit(numericData)

val prepareData = (d: Tensor2D[String]) => {
  val numericData = encoders(d)

val x = prepareData(data)
val y = dataLoader.cols[Float](-1)
  1. First, we load raw data from a CSV file, then we select all columns between 3-rd and last one (-1 means: length - 1).
  2. Initial data is of String type, later we choose numerical data type such as Float.
  3. We compose label, one-hot encoders and data type transformer into a function inside the createEncoders function. That allows us to use prepareData function later for validation dataset.
  4. y data we take from the last column of the dataset.

I am not going to describe the entire code of data preparation classes. The goal of encoders is to prepare data for deep neural network training and inference. We normalise all columns as per their individual means and standard deviations. Also, we encode categorical columns using 0 and 1 using one-hot encoding approach.

Training Run

val ((xTrain, xTest), (yTrain, yTest)) = (x, y).split(0.2f)
val model = ann.train(xTrain, yTrain, epochs = 100)

We split x and y data into 80% and 20% parts for training and testing accordingly. Finally, we execute the training for 100 epochs.

sbt:ann> run
[info] running starter
epoch: 1/100, avg. loss: 0.30220446, accuracy: 0.782
epoch: 2/100, avg. loss: 0.30736533, accuracy: 0.811375
epoch: 3/100, avg. loss: 0.30326372, accuracy: 0.818125
epoch: 4/100, avg. loss: 0.30306807, accuracy: 0.818875
epoch: 5/100, avg. loss: 0.3028989, accuracy: 0.820125
epoch: 6/100, avg. loss: 0.30242646, accuracy: 0.82025
epoch: 7/100, avg. loss: 0.3018655, accuracy: 0.8195
epoch: 8/100, avg. loss: 0.30157945, accuracy: 0.81975
epoch: 9/100, avg. loss: 0.3014126, accuracy: 0.819875
epoch: 10/100, avg. loss: 0.30122074, accuracy: 0.819625
epoch: 11/100, avg. loss: 0.3009277, accuracy: 0.81975
epoch: 12/100, avg. loss: 0.30088165, accuracy: 0.82
epoch: 13/100, avg. loss: 0.30078012, accuracy: 0.8205
epoch: 14/100, avg. loss: 0.30074772, accuracy: 0.8205
epoch: 15/100, avg. loss: 0.30070674, accuracy: 0.8205
epoch: 16/100, avg. loss: 0.30053124, accuracy: 0.82025
epoch: 17/100, avg. loss: 0.2976923, accuracy: 0.81975
epoch: 18/100, avg. loss: 0.2536276, accuracy: 0.84275
epoch: 19/100, avg. loss: 0.24473017, accuracy: 0.85675
epoch: 20/100, avg. loss: 0.24557488, accuracy: 0.857125
epoch: 21/100, avg. loss: 0.24528943, accuracy: 0.857875
epoch: 22/100, avg. loss: 0.2451054, accuracy: 0.857125
epoch: 23/100, avg. loss: 0.24494325, accuracy: 0.857375
epoch: 24/100, avg. loss: 0.24466132, accuracy: 0.857
epoch: 25/100, avg. loss: 0.24451153, accuracy: 0.857625
epoch: 26/100, avg. loss: 0.24442412, accuracy: 0.857375
epoch: 27/100, avg. loss: 0.24431105, accuracy: 0.857625
epoch: 28/100, avg. loss: 0.24418788, accuracy: 0.857375
epoch: 29/100, avg. loss: 0.2440211, accuracy: 0.85775
epoch: 30/100, avg. loss: 0.24400905, accuracy: 0.85725
epoch: 31/100, avg. loss: 0.24397133, accuracy: 0.85725
epoch: 32/100, avg. loss: 0.24386458, accuracy: 0.857375
epoch: 33/100, avg. loss: 0.24389265, accuracy: 0.8575
epoch: 34/100, avg. loss: 0.24378827, accuracy: 0.857375
epoch: 35/100, avg. loss: 0.24381112, accuracy: 0.857875
epoch: 36/100, avg. loss: 0.2437651, accuracy: 0.857875
epoch: 37/100, avg. loss: 0.24369456, accuracy: 0.85775
epoch: 38/100, avg. loss: 0.24377964, accuracy: 0.857625
epoch: 39/100, avg. loss: 0.2435442, accuracy: 0.85775
epoch: 40/100, avg. loss: 0.24363366, accuracy: 0.858125
epoch: 41/100, avg. loss: 0.24358764, accuracy: 0.858125
epoch: 42/100, avg. loss: 0.24355079, accuracy: 0.858375
epoch: 43/100, avg. loss: 0.24369176, accuracy: 0.858125
epoch: 44/100, avg. loss: 0.24361038, accuracy: 0.858125
epoch: 45/100, avg. loss: 0.24359651, accuracy: 0.858125
epoch: 46/100, avg. loss: 0.24361634, accuracy: 0.858125
epoch: 47/100, avg. loss: 0.24357627, accuracy: 0.858
epoch: 48/100, avg. loss: 0.24334462, accuracy: 0.85825
epoch: 49/100, avg. loss: 0.24335352, accuracy: 0.858
epoch: 50/100, avg. loss: 0.24341401, accuracy: 0.858375
epoch: 51/100, avg. loss: 0.24324806, accuracy: 0.8585
epoch: 52/100, avg. loss: 0.24296027, accuracy: 0.858
epoch: 53/100, avg. loss: 0.24271448, accuracy: 0.85775
epoch: 54/100, avg. loss: 0.24256946, accuracy: 0.85825
epoch: 55/100, avg. loss: 0.24257207, accuracy: 0.858125
epoch: 56/100, avg. loss: 0.24284393, accuracy: 0.8585
epoch: 57/100, avg. loss: 0.2430726, accuracy: 0.85825
epoch: 58/100, avg. loss: 0.2431463, accuracy: 0.858125
epoch: 59/100, avg. loss: 0.24277006, accuracy: 0.857625
epoch: 60/100, avg. loss: 0.2423336, accuracy: 0.8585
epoch: 61/100, avg. loss: 0.24251764, accuracy: 0.858125
epoch: 62/100, avg. loss: 0.24255769, accuracy: 0.858625
epoch: 63/100, avg. loss: 0.2427412, accuracy: 0.85825
epoch: 64/100, avg. loss: 0.2428449, accuracy: 0.85825
epoch: 65/100, avg. loss: 0.24228723, accuracy: 0.858625
epoch: 66/100, avg. loss: 0.24231568, accuracy: 0.85875
epoch: 67/100, avg. loss: 0.24237442, accuracy: 0.858125
epoch: 68/100, avg. loss: 0.24238351, accuracy: 0.8585
epoch: 69/100, avg. loss: 0.24219948, accuracy: 0.859125
epoch: 70/100, avg. loss: 0.24231845, accuracy: 0.858875
epoch: 71/100, avg. loss: 0.24243066, accuracy: 0.85875
epoch: 72/100, avg. loss: 0.2423754, accuracy: 0.859
epoch: 73/100, avg. loss: 0.24225388, accuracy: 0.8585
epoch: 74/100, avg. loss: 0.2420498, accuracy: 0.858875
epoch: 75/100, avg. loss: 0.24199313, accuracy: 0.858625
epoch: 76/100, avg. loss: 0.2420193, accuracy: 0.858875
epoch: 77/100, avg. loss: 0.24175513, accuracy: 0.85875
epoch: 78/100, avg. loss: 0.24191435, accuracy: 0.859625
epoch: 79/100, avg. loss: 0.2418117, accuracy: 0.85925
epoch: 80/100, avg. loss: 0.24193105, accuracy: 0.859125
epoch: 81/100, avg. loss: 0.24175763, accuracy: 0.859375
epoch: 82/100, avg. loss: 0.24183328, accuracy: 0.859375
epoch: 83/100, avg. loss: 0.24171984, accuracy: 0.85975
epoch: 84/100, avg. loss: 0.2419013, accuracy: 0.859125
epoch: 85/100, avg. loss: 0.24182202, accuracy: 0.859625
epoch: 86/100, avg. loss: 0.24179217, accuracy: 0.859875
epoch: 87/100, avg. loss: 0.2416485, accuracy: 0.859875
epoch: 88/100, avg. loss: 0.24175707, accuracy: 0.86
epoch: 89/100, avg. loss: 0.24161652, accuracy: 0.85975
epoch: 90/100, avg. loss: 0.24164297, accuracy: 0.8595
epoch: 91/100, avg. loss: 0.24179684, accuracy: 0.859625
epoch: 92/100, avg. loss: 0.2417788, accuracy: 0.859875
epoch: 93/100, avg. loss: 0.24164356, accuracy: 0.859875
epoch: 94/100, avg. loss: 0.24161309, accuracy: 0.8595
epoch: 95/100, avg. loss: 0.24144296, accuracy: 0.85975
epoch: 96/100, avg. loss: 0.24163213, accuracy: 0.85975
epoch: 97/100, avg. loss: 0.24149604, accuracy: 0.86
epoch: 98/100, avg. loss: 0.24137497, accuracy: 0.85925
epoch: 99/100, avg. loss: 0.24164252, accuracy: 0.859625
epoch: 100/100, avg. loss: 0.24153009, accuracy: 0.85975
training time: 5.654 in sec

We can see that accuracy is increasing quite quick. Also, loss value is becoming stable already after 20 epochs.

Entire training for 8000 data samples takes less than 6 seconds.


Single Test

// Single test
val example = TextLoader(
).cols[String](3, -1)
val testExample = prepareData(example)
val exited = 
  predictedToBinary(model.predict(testExample) == 1
println(s"Exited customer? $exited")

We use predict method on the model to test prediction on the single data sample:

Exited customer? false

Dataset Test

We have left 20% of the initial data for testing purposes. So now we can check trained model accuracy on new data that model had never seen before:

val testPredicted = model.predict(xTest)
val value = accuracy(yTest, testPredicted)
println(s"test accuracy = $value")  

Model accuracy on unseen data is quite as well:

test accuracy = 0.8625

Python Implementation

Almost the same implementation in Python takes much longer to train the model. Although, we are using a bit more advanced optimizer such as Adam.

Here is the code snippet that starts model training:

ann.compile(optimizer = 'adam', \
  loss = 'binary_crossentropy', metrics = ['accuracy'])

import time
start = time.process_time(), y_train, batch_size = 32, epochs = 100)
end = time.process_time() - start
print(f"training time = {end} sec")
training time = 24.495086

It is almost 5 times longer. I knew that Python is slow language.

See full code here: tensorflow-ann-python


We have seen that Scala implementation looks very concise thanks to the great language design. It also works faster than Python implementation in Keras on CPU.

Artificial Neural Network can be understood by newbies as magic, but a closer look shows that basic building blocks are just math.

Being a functional programmer in Scala, you may find that some of the code is not doing total functions, but partial functions by throwing erros. Unfortunatelly, there are several possibilities where user may provide wrong inputs from math perspective, so that we could return an Either.Left or something like that to mitigate this problem.

Making a machine learning library is fun, since it is just algorithms and in-memory computations. You do not need to deal with that much I/O, networking or distributed systems programming. Main part even does not parallelise, so no concurrency and cognitive overhead related with it. Of course, to make an ML library today for real life, you would require support of GPU for faster, parallel computation.

Implemented code demonstrates two points:

  1. ANN is an algorithm that you can implement yourself in any programming language. No magic is involved.
  2. Scala is a perfect language to implement libraries for data science and machine learning.

Source Code

Entire code of the Scala ANN implementation can be found here:

Reference Links